Java @Contended 避免缓存行伪共享

Java juc 大约 5520 字

相关名词

CPU缓存、缓存行、伪共享。

CPU 缓存

cpu.png

缓存行 Cache Line

CPU读取内存数据时并非一次只读一个字节,而是会读一段字节长度(不同CPU架构读取的长度不一样,常见的大小是64字节)的连续的内存块,这些块我们称之为缓存行。

但缓存行在高并发场景下会有性能问题:伪共享。

伪共享 False Sharing

当一个CPU要修改某共享变量A时会先锁定自己缓存里A所在的缓存行,并且把其他CPU缓存上相关的缓存行设置为无效。但如果被锁定或失效的缓存行里,还存储了其他不相干的变量B,其他线程此时就访问不了B,或者由于缓存行失效需要重新从内存中读取加载到缓存里,这就造成了开销。所以让共享变量A单独使用一个缓存行就不会影响到其他线程的访问。

适用场景

主要适用于频繁写共享数据上。如果不是频繁写的数据,那么CPU缓存行被锁的几率就不多,所以没必要使用了,否则不仅占空间还会浪费CPU访问操作数据的时间。

测试代码

public class FalseSharing implements Runnable {

    public final static int NUM_THREADS = 4; // change
    public final static long ITERATIONS = 500L * 1000L * 1000L;
    private final int arrayIndex;

//    private static VolatileLong[] longs = new VolatileLong[NUM_THREADS];
//    static {
//        for (int i = 0; i < longs.length; i++) {
//            longs[i] = new VolatileLong();
//        }
//    }
//    private static VolatileLong2[] longs = new VolatileLong2[NUM_THREADS];
//    static {
//        for (int i = 0; i < longs.length; i++) {
//            longs[i] = new VolatileLong2();
//        }
//    }
    private static VolatileLong3[] longs = new VolatileLong3[NUM_THREADS];
    static {
        for (int i = 0; i < longs.length; i++) {
            longs[i] = new VolatileLong3();
        }
    }

    public FalseSharing(final int arrayIndex) {
        this.arrayIndex = arrayIndex;
    }

    public static void main(final String[] args) throws Exception {
        long start = System.nanoTime();
        runTest();
        System.out.println("duration = " + (System.nanoTime() - start));
    }

    private static void runTest() throws InterruptedException {
        Thread[] threads = new Thread[NUM_THREADS];

        for (int i = 0; i < threads.length; i++) {
            threads[i] = new Thread(new FalseSharing(i));
        }

        for (Thread t : threads) {
            t.start();
        }

        for (Thread t : threads) {
            t.join();
        }
    }

    public void run() {
        long i = ITERATIONS + 1;
        while (0 != --i) {
            longs[arrayIndex].value = i;
        }
    }

    // 12494250839
    public final static class VolatileLong {
        public volatile long value = 0L;
    }

    // 7647475236
    // long padding避免false sharing
    // 按理说jdk7以后long padding应该被优化掉了,但是从测试结果看padding仍然起作用
    public final static class VolatileLong2 {
        volatile long p0, p1, p2, p3, p4, p5, p6;
        public volatile long value = 0L;
        volatile long q0, q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6;
    }

    // 7729325748
    // jdk8新特性,Contended注解避免false sharing
    // Restricted on user classpath
    // Unlock: -XX:-RestrictContended
    @sun.misc.Contended
    public final static class VolatileLong3 {
        public volatile long value = 0L;
    }
}

@Contended

OpenJDK源码:http://hg.openjdk.java.net/jdk8u/jdk8u/jdk/file/444b4528c8ec/src/share/classes/sun/misc/Contended.java

/**
 * <p>An annotation expressing that objects and/or their fields are
 * expected to encounter memory contention, generally in the form of
 * "false sharing". This annotation serves as a hint that such objects
 * and fields should reside in locations isolated from those of other
 * objects or fields. Susceptibility to memory contention is a
 * property of the intended usages of objects and fields, not their
 * types or qualifiers. The effects of this annotation will nearly
 * always add significant space overhead to objects. The use of
 * {@code @Contended} is warranted only when the performance impact of
 * this time/space tradeoff is intrinsically worthwhile; for example,
 * in concurrent contexts in which each instance of the annotated
 * class is often accessed by a different thread.
 *
 * <p>A {@code @Contended} field annotation may optionally include a
 * <i>contention group</i> tag. A contention group defines a set of one
 * or more fields that collectively must be isolated from all other
 * contention groups. The fields in the same contention group may not be
 * pairwise isolated. With no contention group tag (or with the default
 * empty tag: "") each {@code @Contended} field resides in its own
 * <i>distinct</i> and <i>anonymous</i> contention group.
 *
 * <p>When the annotation is used at the class level, the effect is
 * equivalent to grouping all the declared fields not already having the
 * {@code @Contended} annotation into the same anonymous group.
 * With the class level annotation, implementations may choose different
 * isolation techniques, such as isolating the entire object, rather than
 * isolating distinct fields. A contention group tag has no meaning
 * in a class level {@code @Contended} annotation, and is ignored.
 *
 * <p>The class level {@code @Contended} annotation is not inherited and has
 * no effect on the fields declared in any sub-classes. The effects of all
 * {@code @Contended} annotations, however, remain in force for all
 * subclass instances, providing isolation of all the defined contention
 * groups. Contention group tags are not inherited, and the same tag used
 * in a superclass and subclass, represent distinct contention groups.
 *
 * @since 1.8
 */
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target({ElementType.FIELD, ElementType.TYPE})
public @interface Contended {

    /**
     * The (optional) contention group tag.
     * This tag is only meaningful for field level annotations.
     *
     * @return contention group tag.
     */
    String value() default "";
}

JEP 规范

指定字段减少缓存竞争。

http://openjdk.java.net/jeps/142

阅读 60 · 发布于 2021-09-27

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