MongoDB备份、还原与导出、导入

MongoDB大约 16308 字

区别

区别mongodump/mongorestoremongoexport/mongoimport
主要用途数据备份小规模或部分或测试期间的数据/恢复备份/恢复小型的MongoDB数据库
导出格式JSON/CSVBSON
指定导出不支持导出单个db的所有collection支持导出单个db的所有collection
注意事项不要用于生产环境的备份不适合备份/恢复大型MongoDB数据库

备份 - mongodump

主要参数

NOTE:
Failed: bad option: --out not allowed when --archive is specified
-o, --out 不能和 --archive 同时指定

  • -h, --host:指定 MongoDB host
  • --port:指定 MongoDB 端口
  • -u, --username:指定用户名
  • -p, --password:指定密码
  • -d, --db:指定需要备份的数据库
  • -c, --collection:指定需要备份的集合
  • -q, --query:指定备份时过滤的条件,json 字符串,例:{x:{$gt:1}}
  • -o, --out:备份到指定文件夹(默认文件夹 dump,指定 - 则在屏幕上输出信息)
  • --archive:备份到一个文件
  • --gzip:压缩备份文件
  • --excludeCollection:指定集合不备份
  • --excludeCollectionsWithPrefix:不备份匹配前缀的集合

命令示例

  • 备份全库,备份至文件
mongodump -d z-blog --archive=mongodump-z-blog-20200204
  • 备份全库,备份至文件夹(-o, --out均可)
mongodump -d z-blog -o mongodump-dir-z-blog-20200204
  • 备份全库,指定集合不备份,备份至压缩包(真实备份文件在压缩包中)
mongodump -d z-blog --excludeCollection=page_view_record --archive=monodump-z-blog-20200204.gz --gzip
  • 备份指定集合
mongodump -d z-blog -c search_stats --archive=mongodump-z-blog-search-stat.gz --gzip

还原 - mongorestore

主要参数

NOTE:
Failed: stream or file does not appear to be a mongodump archive
可能是压缩过的文件,需指定 --gzip 参数

  • --drop:删除现有数据
  • --dir:指定要恢复的数据存放的文件夹
  • --archive:指定恢复的文件名称
  • --excludeCollection:不恢复指定集合
  • --excludeCollectionsWithPrefix:不恢复匹配前缀的集合

命令示例

  • 从文件夹中还原
mongorestore -d z-blog --dir=mongodump-dir
  • 从压缩过的备份文件中还原(压缩过的备份文件必须指定 --gzip)
mongorestore -d z-blog --archive=z-blog-dump-20200204.gz --gzip
  • 还原时,删除原有数据
mongorestore -d z-blog --drop --archive=z-blog-dump-20200204

导出 - mongoexport

主要参数

NOTE:
Failed: CSV mode requires a field list
导出 csv 格式时必须指定字段

  • -f, --fields:选择导出的字段(导出 csv 时必须指定)
  • --type:选择导出的格式(json/csv),默认 json
  • -o, --out:导出的文件名
  • -q, --query:指定导出时过滤的条件,json 字符串,例:{x:{$gt:1}}
  • --skip:指定跳过数量
  • --limit:指定导出数量
  • --sort:指定 json 字符串排序,例:{x:1}

命令示例

  • 导出json,全部字段
mongoexport -d z-blog -c post --type=json -o mongoexport-post-20200204.json
  • 导出json,指定字段
mongoexport -d z-blog -c post --type=json -f pv,likeCount,commentCount -o mongoexport-post-20200204.json
  • 导出csv不带首行,指定字段(导出全部字段推荐使用 json 方式导出)
mongoexport -d z-blog -c post --type=csv --noHeaderLine -f pv,likeCount,commentCount -o mongoexport-post-20200204.csv
  • 指定IP/端口/用户名/密码,查询条件,字段,导出csv不带首行
mongoexport -h 10.95.196.91 --port 20000 -u testuser -p testpwd -d z-blog -c taskinfo -q "{taskId:'mdQ02Ea3wlpmb8OGE1s'}" --type=csv --noHeaderLine -f taskNum -o mongoexport-20200312.csv

导入 - mongoimport

主要参数

  • --file:指定导入的文件
  • --type:指定类型json, csv, tcs,默认json
  • --drop:导入时删除原有数据

导入 json 数据

mongoimport -d z-blog -c post --type=json --file=mongoexport-post-20200204.json

详细参数

通用参数

general options:
      --help                                                print usage
      --version                                             print the tool version and exit

verbosity options:
  -v, --verbose=<level>                                     more detailed log output (include multiple times for more verbosity, e.g. -vvvvv, or specify a numeric value, e.g. --verbose=N)
      --quiet                                               hide all log output

connection options:
  -h, --host=<hostname>                                     mongodb host to connect to (setname/host1,host2 for replica sets)
      --port=<port>                                         server port (can also use --host hostname:port)

ssl options:
      --ssl                                                 connect to a mongod or mongos that has ssl enabled
      --sslCAFile=<filename>                                the .pem file containing the root certificate chain from the certificate authority
      --sslPEMKeyFile=<filename>                            the .pem file containing the certificate and key
      --sslPEMKeyPassword=<password>                        the password to decrypt the sslPEMKeyFile, if necessary
      --sslCRLFile=<filename>                               the .pem file containing the certificate revocation list
      --sslAllowInvalidCertificates                         bypass the validation for server certificates
      --sslAllowInvalidHostnames                            bypass the validation for server name
      --sslFIPSMode                                         use FIPS mode of the installed openssl library

authentication options:
  -u, --username=<username>                                 username for authentication
  -p, --password=<password>                                 password for authentication
      --authenticationDatabase=<database-name>              database that holds the user's credentials
      --authenticationMechanism=<mechanism>                 authentication mechanism to use

uri options:
      --uri=mongodb-uri                                     mongodb uri connection string

备份 - mongodump

Usage:
  mongodump <options>

Export the content of a running server into .bson files.

Specify a database with -d and a collection with -c to only dump that database or collection.

See http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/reference/program/mongodump/ for more information.

namespace options:
  -d, --db=<database-name>                                  database to use
  -c, --collection=<collection-name>                        collection to use

query options:
  -q, --query=                                              query filter, as a JSON string, e.g., '{x:{$gt:1}}'
      --queryFile=                                          path to a file containing a query filter (JSON)
      --readPreference=<string>|<json>                      specify either a preference name or a preference json object
      --forceTableScan                                      force a table scan

output options:
  -o, --out=<directory-path>                                output directory, or '-' for stdout (defaults to 'dump')
      --gzip                                                compress archive our collection output with Gzip
      --repair                                              try to recover documents from damaged data files (not supported by all storage engines)
      --oplog                                               use oplog for taking a point-in-time snapshot
      --archive=<file-path>                                 dump as an archive to the specified path. If flag is specified without a value, archive is written to stdout
      --dumpDbUsersAndRoles                                 dump user and role definitions for the specified database
      --excludeCollection=<collection-name>                 collection to exclude from the dump (may be specified multiple times to exclude additional collections)
      --excludeCollectionsWithPrefix=<collection-prefix>    exclude all collections from the dump that have the given prefix (may be specified multiple times to exclude additional prefixes)
  -j, --numParallelCollections=                             number of collections to dump in parallel (4 by default) (default: 4)
      --viewsAsCollections                                  dump views as normal collections with their produced data, omitting standard collections

还原 - mongorestore

Usage:
  mongorestore <options> <directory or file to restore>

Restore backups generated with mongodump to a running server.

Specify a database with -d to restore a single database from the target directory,
or use -d and -c to restore a single collection from a single .bson file.

See http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/reference/program/mongorestore/ for more information.

namespace options:
  -d, --db=<database-name>                                  database to use when restoring from a BSON file
  -c, --collection=<collection-name>                        collection to use when restoring from a BSON file
      --excludeCollection=<collection-name>                 DEPRECATED; collection to skip over during restore (may be specified multiple times to exclude additional collections)
      --excludeCollectionsWithPrefix=<collection-prefix>    DEPRECATED; collections to skip over during restore that have the given prefix (may be specified multiple times to exclude additional prefixes)
      --nsExclude=<namespace-pattern>                       exclude matching namespaces
      --nsInclude=<namespace-pattern>                       include matching namespaces
      --nsFrom=<namespace-pattern>                          rename matching namespaces, must have matching nsTo
      --nsTo=<namespace-pattern>                            rename matched namespaces, must have matching nsFrom

input options:
      --objcheck                                            validate all objects before inserting
      --oplogReplay                                         replay oplog for point-in-time restore
      --oplogLimit=<seconds>[:ordinal]                      only include oplog entries before the provided Timestamp
      --oplogFile=<filename>                                oplog file to use for replay of oplog
      --archive=<filename>                                  restore dump from the specified archive file.  If flag is specified without a value, archive is read from stdin
      --restoreDbUsersAndRoles                              restore user and role definitions for the given database
      --dir=<directory-name>                                input directory, use '-' for stdin
      --gzip                                                decompress gzipped input

restore options:
      --drop                                                drop each collection before import
      --dryRun                                              view summary without importing anything. recommended with verbosity
      --writeConcern=<write-concern>                        write concern options e.g. --writeConcern majority, --writeConcern '{w: 3, wtimeout: 500, fsync: true, j: true}'
      --noIndexRestore                                      don't restore indexes
      --noOptionsRestore                                    don't restore collection options
      --keepIndexVersion                                    don't update index version
      --maintainInsertionOrder                              preserve order of documents during restoration
  -j, --numParallelCollections=                             number of collections to restore in parallel (4 by default) (default: 4)
      --numInsertionWorkersPerCollection=                   number of insert operations to run concurrently per collection (1 by default) (default: 1)
      --stopOnError                                         stop restoring if an error is encountered on insert (off by default)
      --bypassDocumentValidation                            bypass document validation
      --preserveUUID                                        preserve original collection UUIDs (off by default, requires drop)

导出 - mongoexport

Usage:
  mongoexport <options>

Export data from MongoDB in CSV or JSON format.

See http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/reference/program/mongoexport/ for more information.

namespace options:
  -d, --db=<database-name>                        database to use
  -c, --collection=<collection-name>              collection to use

output options:
  -f, --fields=<field>[,<field>]*                 comma separated list of field names (required for exporting CSV) e.g. -f "name,age"
      --fieldFile=<filename>                      file with field names - 1 per line
      --type=<type>                               the output format, either json or csv (defaults to 'json') (default: json)
  -o, --out=<filename>                            output file; if not specified, stdout is used
      --jsonArray                                 output to a JSON array rather than one object per line
      --pretty                                    output JSON formatted to be human-readable
      --noHeaderLine                              export CSV data without a list of field names at the first line

querying options:
  -q, --query=<json>                              query filter, as a JSON string, e.g., '{x:{$gt:1}}'
      --queryFile=<filename>                      path to a file containing a query filter (JSON)
  -k, --slaveOk                                   allow secondary reads if available (default true) (default: false)
      --readPreference=<string>|<json>            specify either a preference name or a preference json object
      --forceTableScan                            force a table scan (do not use $snapshot)
      --skip=<count>                              number of documents to skip
      --limit=<count>                             limit the number of documents to export
      --sort=<json>                               sort order, as a JSON string, e.g. '{x:1}'
      --assertExists                              if specified, export fails if the collection does not exist (default: false)

导入 - mongoimport

Usage:
  mongoimport <options> <file>

Import CSV, TSV or JSON data into MongoDB. If no file is provided, mongoimport reads from stdin.

See http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/reference/program/mongoimport/ for more information.

namespace options:
  -d, --db=<database-name>                        database to use
  -c, --collection=<collection-name>              collection to use

input options:
  -f, --fields=<field>[,<field>]*                 comma separated list of fields, e.g. -f name,age
      --fieldFile=<filename>                      file with field names - 1 per line
      --file=<filename>                           file to import from; if not specified, stdin is used
      --headerline                                use first line in input source as the field list (CSV and TSV only)
      --jsonArray                                 treat input source as a JSON array
      --parseGrace=<grace>                        controls behavior when type coercion fails - one of: autoCast, skipField, skipRow, stop (defaults to 'stop') (default: stop)
      --type=<type>                               input format to import: json, csv, or tsv (defaults to 'json') (default: json)
      --columnsHaveTypes                          indicated that the field list (from --fields, --fieldsFile, or --headerline) specifies types; They must be in the form of
                                                  '<colName>.<type>(<arg>)'. The type can be one of: auto, binary, bool, date, date_go, date_ms, date_oracle, double, int32, int64, string.
                                                  For each of the date types, the argument is a datetime layout string. For the binary type, the argument can be one of: base32, base64, hex.
                                                  All other types take an empty argument. Only valid for CSV and TSV imports. e.g. zipcode.string(), thumbnail.binary(base64)

ingest options:
      --drop                                      drop collection before inserting documents
      --ignoreBlanks                              ignore fields with empty values in CSV and TSV
      --maintainInsertionOrder                    insert documents in the order of their appearance in the input source
  -j, --numInsertionWorkers=<number>              number of insert operations to run concurrently (defaults to 1) (default: 1)
      --stopOnError                               stop importing at first insert/upsert error
      --mode=[insert|upsert|merge]                insert: insert only. upsert: insert or replace existing documents. merge: insert or modify existing documents. defaults to insert
      --upsertFields=<field>[,<field>]*           comma-separated fields for the query part when --mode is set to upsert or merge
      --writeConcern=<write-concern-specifier>    write concern options e.g. --writeConcern majority, --writeConcern '{w: 3, wtimeout: 500, fsync: true, j: true}'
      --bypassDocumentValidation                  bypass document validation

参考

生产环境备份须知

mongodump

mongorestore

mongoexport

mongoimport

阅读 751 · 发布于 2020-02-04

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